A - Ok, pertinent to this issue is a study that was done with runners several years ago. The mad scientists inserted thermosensor electrodes into the runners' calf (actually the soleus) muscles, and then observed the temperature of the muscle tissue before exercise and while running on a treadmill.
They observed that the temperature of the calf muscle tissue rose steadily over the resting value for a period of 12 minutes and then plateaued. Why? Because at rest there is relatively little blood flowing through the muscles and a much lower metabolic level of activity - but once you begin to exercise, the pipelines of blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries) dilate considerably, allowing up to 10 times more blood through the tissues which, along with the greater metabolic energy, results in increasing the temperature of the acting muscle tissues, and thereby increasing their performance capacity while reducing the risk of cramping or worse.
So, my suggested warm up for someone who has trained to aggressively run 5 or 10 km is to run easily for at least to 12 to 15 minutes, then do some running drills, then run 5 x 80 to 100 metres ("strides") at a pace which is faster than the intended race pace (with about a 1:00 to 1:30 walk back between each stride).
Ideally, the last stride should be completed within 10 minutes of the race start. Of course, this is not always possible in the mega races where runners are required to check in to corals. So, while you are waiting for the start, you should keep yourself warm (e.g., dance gangnam style or in the style of the viral Michelle Jenneke lol - just keep moving) and perhaps keeping discardable clothes on if the temperature is cool until the last minute.